Supplementary MaterialsS1 Fig: IgD-CD27- B cells are mainly class-switched and express low IgM levels. saline (PBS) and cellular viability was estimated with 0.4% Trypan blue (Sigma, USA). Circulation cytometry To analyze the rate of recurrence of B cell subpopulations in the periphery, B cells were classified using the IgD/CD27 classification system that allows the recognition of four main B cell subsets (gated in CD19): na?ve B cells (IgD+CD27-), pre-switch-memory (IgD+CD27+), post-switch memory space (IgD-CD27+) and LY317615 (Enzastaurin) double-negative (DN, IgD-CD27-) B cells. A second classification system based on IgD/CD38 (gated in CD19) was also used to identify circulating transitional (IgD+CD38++) B cells and plasmablasts (IgD-CD38++). To characterize B cell phenotype, the manifestation of several cellular markers was analyzed, which included: BAFF-R, TACI and BCMA, the three BAFF receptors on B cells; CD69, CD86 and HLA-DR, activation markers; CXCR5, important for B cell chemotaxis; CD95, also known as Fas receptor (FasR), to analyze Fas-mediated apoptosis; IgM, a component of the B cell receptor (BCR); CD5, a marker of B cell differentiation; and toll-like receptor (TLR)-9, the main TLR indicated by B cells. Immunophenotyping of B cells was performed in PBMC samples (1106 cells/ sample) using matched combinations of anti-human murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) conjugated to FITC, phycoerytrin (PE), peridinin chlorophyll protein (PerCP)-Cy5.5, allophycocyanin (APC), PE-Cy7, eFlour 450 and APC-eFluor780. Combinations of anti-CD19 conjugated to PerCP-Cy5.5 or APC, anti-IgD conjugated to PE-Cy7 or FITC, anti-CD27 conjugated to eFluor450 or FITC, anti-CD38 conjugated to APC-eFluor780, anti-BAFF-R conjugated to PE, anti-TACI conjugated to APC, anti-CD86 conjugated to PE, anti-CD69 conjugated to PerCP or APC, anti-IgM conjugated to PE, anti-CD5 conjugated to APC, anti-CXCR5 conjugated to PE, anti-HLA-DR conjugated to APC, anti-CD95 LY317615 (Enzastaurin) conjugated to APC, anti-BCMA conjugated to PE and anti-TLR9 conjugated to APC were used. All antibodies were purchased from BD Pharmingen (USA), eBioscience (USA) and R&D Systems (United Kingdom). For cell surface stainings, PBMC were incubated with antibodies during 30 minutes, in the dark, at 4C. For TLR9 LY317615 (Enzastaurin) intracellular staining, PBMC were fixed during CEACAM1 20 moments at room temp with IC Fixation Buffer (eBioscience, USA), permeabilized with 1X Permeabilization Buffer (eBioscience, USA) and stained relating to eBioscience intracellular antigen staining protocol. A total of 50.000 cells/ sample gated in CD19+ B cells were acquired with LSR Fortessa (BD). Data were analyzed with FlowJo (TreeStar, Stanford University or college, California, USA). All samples were acquired on the same day of the staining protocol. B cell separation B cells were isolated by positive MACS Separation using CD19 Microbeads and LS Columns (Miltenyi Biotec GmbH, Germany), according to the manufacturers instructions, using snow chilly buffers and reagents to avoid cellular activation. After isolation, B cells were immediately stored at -80C until further. Purity of isolated B cells was analyzed by circulation cytometry using fluorochrome-conjugated CD20 FITC (BD Biosciences, USA) and CD3 APC (eBioscience, USA) antibodies. A total of 20.000 cells/ sample were acquired with LSR Fortessa (BD Biosciences, USA). RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis Total RNA was extracted from B cells using the RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen, Germany) according to the manufacturers instructions and treatment with RNase-free DNase Set (Qiagen, Germany) was performed to avoid contamination of genomic DNA. RNA concentration and purity were decided with NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, USA). Total RNA was reverse-transcribed into cDNA using DyNAmoTM cDNA Synthesis Kit for qRT-PCR (Finnzymes, Finland) with Moloney murine leukemia computer virus (M-MuLV) reverse transcriptase, random hexamers (300 ng/l) and 2X RT Buffer, according to the manufacturers instructions, performed on Piko Thermal Cycler (Finnzymes, Finland). The cDNA samples were stored at -20C. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction The expression of a group of genes directly related with B cell activation through either BAFF (BAFF-R, TACI, BCMA) or TLRs (TLR7, TLR9, TLR10), chemotaxis (CXCR5), B cell inhibition (FcRIIB or CD32), apoptosis (BCL-2), class-switch recombination (AID), plasma cell differentiation (BLIMP-1) and cellular activation (2M) was LY317615 (Enzastaurin) assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) performed on Rotor-Gene 6000 (Corbett Life Science, USA) using SensiMix SYBR No-ROX Kit (Bioline, United Kingdom). The qPCR program consisted of an initial denaturation step at 95C for 10 min, followed by 40 cycles of 95C for 15 s, 60C for 15 s, and 72C for 15 s. Genes and primer sequences analyzed in this study are indicated in Table 2. Primers were designed using the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)/ Primer-BLAST. The 18S ribosomal RNA.