Preclinical data with IL-13 zetakine CAR to target IL-13R2 showed elimination of human xenografts in mice . a truncated, constitutively active form of the receptor which results in increased proliferation and survival advantage of GBM tumor cells . Another transforming mutation is usually EGFRvIV, with a deletion in the C-terminal domain name. These mutations are very specific to glioma cells and hence a stylish target for therapy. Numerous preclinical studies exhibited the efficiency of targeting the EGFRvIII or wild-type EGFR with peptide vaccines  or targeted antibodies  and led to development of a clinical trial with autologous DC vaccines pulsed with the EGFRvIII keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH)-conjugated specific peptide (PEPvIII-KLH/CDX-110), which showed safety and efficacy in eliciting an antitumor immune response and improved survival in GBM patients who express the respective variant . Peptide vaccines Peptide vaccines offer advantages compared with DC vaccines, as they do not require generation of activated and mature autologous DCs, a process that may not be Amlodipine besylate (Norvasc) feasible in all patients. It is important that this peptides are tumor-specific and that immune stimulatory strategies (immune adjuvants, cytokines: IL-2, GM-CSF) are coopted to ensure the proper priming and maturation of the endogenous APCs. Following promising results with the DC vaccine Amlodipine besylate (Norvasc) pulsed with the EGFRvIII peptide, a subsequent Phase II multicenter study (ACTIVATE, ACTII) applied the PEPvIII-KLH/CDX-100 vaccine (Rindopepimut/CDX-110) concurrent with temozolomide, without the accompanying DCs, in patients with newly diagnosed EGFRvIII-positive GBM . This study showed that 6 out of 14 patients analyzed developed EGFRvIII-specific antibody responses which correlated positively with OS, the median OS (26.0 months) being higher than in the matched historical control group (15 months) and that at recurrence 82% of Amlodipine besylate (Norvasc) patients lost EGFRvIII expression, demonstrating treatment-induced tumor immunoediting and immune escape [185,186]. A subsequent Phase II multicenter single-arm trial (ACTIII), aimed to confirm previous results using the same therapeutic approach, showed a median OS of 21.8 months, specific anti-EGFRvIII antibody titers in 85% of patients and decrease in EGFRvIII immunoreactivity in 4/6 (67%) tumor samples . A current Phase III multicenter clinical trial (ACTIV, “type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT01480479″,”term_id”:”NCT01480479″NCT01480479) is testing the efficacy of (CDX-110, Rintega, CellDex therapeutics), GM-CSF, temozolomide and KLH for the treatment of adult patients with EGFRvIII-positive glioblastomas. Another Phase II study is usually looking at the effects of combining rindopepimut, GM-CSF and bevacizumab for the treatment of relapsed EGFRvIII-positive glioma (“type”:”clinical-trial”,”attrs”:”text”:”NCT01498328″,”term_id”:”NCT01498328″NCT01498328). Given the risk of immunoediting following single-peptide vaccinations, many investigators are aiming to produce effective combinations Amlodipine besylate (Norvasc) of GBM-specific peptides to induce strong antitumor immune responses and prevent the induction of immune tolerance. A pilot study of 26 pediatric brain stem and high-grade gliomas used a combination of three GAA peptides: EphA2, IL-13R2 and survivin, together with a pan HLA-DR tetanus toxoid peptide and the TLR3 agonist poly[I:C] administered intradermally in HLA-A2-positive children. This study showed that this vaccines were well tolerated, TSPAN5 induced specific anti-GAA immune responses (by ELISPOT) and favorable clinical responses . Some patients presented initial pseudoprogression, as evidenced by worsening symptoms and transient increased edema, evidenced on MRI scans, due to tumor infiltration Amlodipine besylate (Norvasc) with immune cells following the vaccine. However, patients showing pseudoprogression survived longer, suggesting that this may be a favorable prognostic marker for treatment efficacy. In adult patients with high-risk low-grade glioma (LGG), a study using vaccinations with eight courses of intramuscular administration of the GAAs: IL13R2, EphA2, WT1 and Survivin emulsified with the adjuvant Montanide-ISA-51 exhibited strong IFN ELISPOT responses against at least 3 out of 4 peptides in 14 out of 22 patients and median PFS of 17 months in newly diagnosed patients and 12 months.