Data Availability StatementNot applicable

Data Availability StatementNot applicable. ingestion, cysts multiply into trophozoites and colonize the host colonic mucosa using lectin and cysteine proteases as virulence factors, leading to host invasion. Symptoms occur along a spectrum, from asymptomatology, to pyrexia, abdominal cramping, and amoebic dysentery. Colonization of the colon results in the formation of Pirinixil distinct flask-shaped ulcers along the epithelium, and eventual penetration of the lamina propria via the production of matrix metalloproteinases. ALA then develops through trophozoite migration via the mesenteric hepatic portal circulation, where microabscesses coalesce to form a single, large right-lobe abscess, commonly on the posterior aspect. The progression of infection to invasive disease is contingent on the unique interplay between host and pathogen factors, such as the strength of host-immunity to overcome infection and inherent pathogenicity of the species. As a preventable illness, complications such as ALA impose a significant burden on the healthcare system. This mini-review highlights epidemiological trends, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, treatment approaches, and HYRC opportunities for prevention of (is also the most common cause of amoebic abscesses [3]This pathogen is endemic to tropical countries, such as Sri Lanka (SLK) and has been a major parasitological health concern on the island since 1962 [4C9]. Overall, the incidence of amoebiasis and ALA have declined significantly in other parts of the island [10] but remains a common cause of emergency department (ED) admission in the north [6, 11]. This has been attributed to a multitude of factors such as poor sanitation, hygiene practices, alcohol consumption, male sex, low socioeconomic status (SES), lack of safe water, healthcare facilities and poor access to healthcare services [12, 13]. Opportunities to completely eradicate this pathogen from the island have been circumvented by political unrest and internal displacement, which took place in the northern regions [11, 14]. With the unrests resolution in 2009 2009, research has once again begun in a concerted effort to eradicate this infection from the islandThus, preventive medicine is crucial and may contribute to reducing the incidence of illness through the implementation of health policy initiatives and control strategies. This mini-review highlights epidemiological trends, risk factors, diagnostic modalities, treatment approaches, and prevention strategies to reduce transmission and the burden of in SLK. Epidemiology infection can be divided into symptomatic and asymptomatic. Asymptomatic individuals tend to be infected/colonized by mostly non-pathogenic and commensal species, primarily ([15C17]. In fact, Herbinger et al. (2011) demonstrated that, in a cohort of 5378 travelers returning back to Germany from elsewhere with symptoms of intestinal infections, PCR had detected and in 9.7% and 88.3% of cases, respectively; more importantly, however, was the fact that almost all of those with PCR evidence of had symptoms typical of amebiasis, compared with only half with evidence of [18]. The rest of those with were determined to be co-infected with other organisms such as spp., colonization in completely asymptomatic HIV-positive individuals, with no evidence of mucosal invasion [15, 19]. Up until recently, microscopy has been the most widely used method of diagnosis in studies and in practice [20]. However, microscopy is vastly user-dependent and (unless the user is highly skilled and experienced) lacks ability in Pirinixil diagnosing true amebiasis from amebiasis-like symptoms caused by other microorganisms, but with concomitant colonization [21]. As such, going forward with this discussion, it is important that a discrepancy is maintained between the epidemiology of infection (which may be completely asymptomatic) and the epidemiology of the disease itself (amebiasis and its many manifestations, caused primarily by spp.; 50 million of those with an invasive disease such as ALA [22]. Other accounts claim that afflicts 10% of the population worldwide [23], with an estimated death toll of 40,000C100,000 per year, making it the second most common cause of mortality from an infectious parasitic disease [24]. A recent review by Cui et al. (2019) assessing articles that had used molecular methods (PCR) for detection uncovered that, of the 107,396 total pool of participants of all included studies worldwide, 3817 (3.55%) were positive for spp.; rates were as low as 0.43% in Belgium and as high as 82.64% in Malaysia [22]. It is worth mentioning that, although some studies conducted in developed countries may show high PCR-positivity rates for spp., the proportion of those positive for the virulent is minor. For example, out of the 66 patients positive for spp. in a small-scale Canadian Pirinixil study, only 2 (0.03%) were positive [25]. Similar results are apparent for other studies in other developed countries such as Germany (0.1%), Sweden (0.06%), and Australia (0.04%) [18, 20, 26, 27]. In contrast, the proportion of PCR-identified infections compared with total infections in developing countries neighboring SLK like India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Malaysia were 41.4%, 60.2%, 17.2%, and 28.1%, respectively [28C43]. Therefore, the literature largely suggests that most infections by occur in developing countries, and those from developed countries that are.